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I'd like you to imagine the world anew. [AI] 我想让你重新想象这个世界。 I'd like to show you some maps. [AI] 我想给你看一些地图。 which have been drawn by Ben Hennig. [AI] 这是本·亨尼格画的。 of the planet in a way [AI] 从某种程度上说是地球的一部分 that most of you will never have seen the planet depicted before. [AI] 你们中的大多数人以前从未见过这颗行星。 Here's an image that you're very familiar with. [AI] 这是一张你非常熟悉的图片。 I'm old enough that I was actually born before we saw this image. [AI] 我已经足够大了,在我们看到这张照片之前我就已经出生了。 Apparently some of my first words were "moona. moona." [AI] 显然,我的第一句话是“月亮,月亮。” but I think that's my mom having a particular fantasy [AI] 但我想那是我妈妈有一个特别的幻想 about what her baby boy could see [AI] 关于她的小男孩能看到什么 on the flickering black and white TV screen. [AI] 在闪烁的黑白电视屏幕上。 It's only been a few centuries [AI] 才几个世纪 since we've actually. most of us. thought of our planet as spherical. [AI] 因为我们实际上已经。我们大多数人。认为我们的星球是球形的。 When we first saw these images in the 1960s. [AI] 当我们在20世纪60年代第一次看到这些图像时。 the world was changing at an incredible rate. [AI] 世界正在以惊人的速度变化。 In my own little discipline of human geography. [AI] 在我自己的人文地理小学科里。 a cartographer called Waldo Tobler [AI] 一个叫沃尔多·托布勒的制图员 was drawing new maps of the planet. [AI] 正在绘制新的行星地图。 and these maps have now spread. [AI] 这些地图现在已经扩散开来。 and I'm going to show you one of them now. [AI] 我现在要给你看一个。 This map is a map of the world. [AI] 这张地图是世界地图。 but it's a map which looks to you a little bit strange. [AI] 但在你看来,这是一张有点奇怪的地图。 It's a map in which we stretched places. [AI] 这是一张地图,我们在地图上标出了一些地方。 so that those areas which contain many people are drawn larger. [AI] 因此,包含许多人的区域被画得更大。 and those areas. like the Sahara and the Himalayas. [AI] 以及这些领域。像撒哈拉沙漠和喜马拉雅山脉。 in which there are few people. have been shrunk away. [AI] 那里的人很少。已经缩小了。 Everybody on the planet is given an equal amount of space. [AI] 地球上的每个人都有同等的空间。 The cities are shown shining bright. [AI] 城市呈现出明亮的光芒。 The lines are showing you submarine cables and trade routes. [AI] 这些线路向你展示了海底电缆和贸易路线。 And there's one particular line that goes from the Chinese port of Dalian [AI] 还有一条特别的线路从中国的大连港出发 through past Singapore. [AI] 经过新加坡。 through the Suez Canal. [AI] 穿过苏伊士运河。 through the Mediterranean and round to Rotterdam. [AI] 穿过地中海,绕到鹿特丹。 And it's showing you the route [AI] 它会告诉你路线 of what was the world's largest ship just a year ago. [AI] 就在一年前,世界上最大的船只。 a ship which was taking so many containers of goods [AI] 一艘载着这么多集装箱货物的船 that when they were unloaded. [AI] 当他们卸货时。 if the lorries had all gone in convoy. they would have been 100 kilometers long. [AI] 如果所有的卡车都护送过去的话。它们可能有100公里长。 This is how our world is now connected. [AI] 这就是我们的世界现在的联系方式。 This is the quantity of stuff we are now moving around the world. [AI] 这是我们现在在世界各地移动的东西的数量。 just on one ship. on one voyage. [AI] 就在一艘船上。一次航行。 in five weeks. [AI] 五周后。 We've lived in cities for a very long time. [AI] 我们在城市生活了很长时间。 but most of us didn't live in cities. [AI] 但我们大多数人都不住在城市里。 This is Çatalhöyük. one of the world's first cities. [AI] 这是圣塔勒赫尤克,世界上最早的城市之一。 At its peak 9.000 years ago. [AI] 在9000年前的巅峰时期。 people had to walk over the roofs of others' houses to get to their home. [AI] 人们不得不穿过别人的屋顶才能到家。 If you look carefully at the map of the city. [AI] 如果你仔细看城市地图。 you'll see it has no streets. [AI] 你会看到它没有街道。 because streets are something we invented. [AI] 因为街道是我们发明的。 The world changes. [AI] 世界在变化。 It changes by trial and error. [AI] 它通过反复试验而改变。 We work out slowly and gradually [AI] 我们慢慢地、逐渐地锻炼 how to live in better ways. [AI] 如何以更好的方式生活。 And the world has changed incredibly quickly most recently. [AI] 最近世界发生了难以置信的变化。 It's only within the last six. seven. or eight generations [AI] 只是在最近六个月内。七还是八代 that we have actually realized that we are a species. [AI] 我们已经意识到我们是一个物种。 It's only within the last few decades [AI] 这只是在过去几十年内 that a map like this could be drawn. [AI] 这样的地图可以画出来。 Again. the underlying map is the map of world population. [AI] 再一次下面的地图是世界人口地图。 but over it. you're seeing arrows showing how we spread out of Africa [AI] 但这一切都结束了。你看到的箭头显示了我们是如何走出非洲的 with dates showing you where we think we arrived [AI] 日期告诉你我们到达的地点 at particular times. [AI] 在特定的时间。 I have to redraw this map every few months. [AI] 我每隔几个月就得重新绘制这张地图。 because somebody makes a discovery that a particular date was wrong. [AI] 因为有人发现某个日期错了。 We are learning about ourselves at an incredible speed. [AI] 我们正在以惊人的速度了解自己。 And we're changing. [AI] 我们正在改变。 A lot of change is gradual. [AI] 很多变化是渐进的。 It's accretion. [AI] 这是吸积。 We don't notice the change [AI] 我们没有注意到变化 because we only have short lives. [AI] 因为我们只有短暂的生命。 70. 80. if you're lucky 90 years. [AI] 70. 80. 如果你幸运90年。 This graph is showing you [AI] 这张图表显示的是 the annual rate of population growth in the world. [AI] 世界人口年增长率。 It was very low until around about 1850. [AI] 大约在1850年以前,气温一直很低。 and then the rate of population growth [AI] 然后是人口增长率 began to rise [AI] 开始上升 so that around the time I was born. [AI] 所以在我出生的时候。 when we first saw those images from the moon of our planet. [AI] 当我们第一次从我们星球的卫星上看到这些图像时。 our global population was growing at two percent a year. [AI] 我们的全球人口正以每年2%的速度增长。 If it had carried on growing at two percent a year [AI] 如果它继续以每年2%的速度增长 for just another couple of centuries. [AI] 再过几个世纪。 the entire planet would be covered [AI] 整个星球都将被覆盖 with a seething mass of human bodies [AI] 有着一大堆沸腾的人体 all touching each other. [AI] 所有的人都互相接触。 And people were scared. [AI] 人们都很害怕。 They were scared of population growth [AI] 他们害怕人口增长 and what they called "the population bomb" in 1968. [AI] 1968年他们称之为“人口炸弹”。 But then. if you look at the end of the graph. [AI] 但是后来。如果你看图表的末尾。 the growth began to slow. [AI] 增长开始放缓。 The decade -- [AI] 十年-- the '70s. the '80s. the '90s. the noughties. [AI] 70年代。80年代。90年代。世纪初。 and in this decade. even faster -- [AI] 在这十年里。更快-- our population growth is slowing. [AI] 我们的人口增长正在放缓。 Our planet is stabilizing. [AI] 我们的星球正在稳定。 We are heading towards nine. 10. or 11 billion people [AI] 我们快九点了。10.或110亿人 by the end of the century. [AI] 到本世纪末。 Within that change. you can see tumult. [AI] 在这一变化范围内。你可以看到骚动。 You can see the Second World War. [AI] 你可以看到第二次世界大战。 You can see the pandemic in 1918 from influenza. [AI] 你可以从流感中看到1918年的大流行。 You can see the great Chinese famine. [AI] 你可以看到中国的大饥荒。 These are the events we tend to concentrate on. [AI] 这些是我们倾向于关注的事件。 We tend to concentrate on the terrible events in the news. [AI] 我们倾向于关注新闻中的可怕事件。 We don't tend to concentrate on the gradual change [AI] 我们不倾向于关注渐进的变化 and the good news stories. [AI] 还有好消息。 We worry about people. [AI] 我们担心人。 We worry about how many people there are. [AI] 我们担心有多少人。 We worry about how you can get away from people. [AI] 我们担心的是你怎样才能远离人们。 But this is the map of the world changed again to make area large. [AI] 但这是世界地图再次改变,使面积变大。 the further away people are from each area. [AI] 离每个地区越远的人就越多。 So if you want to know where to go to get away from everybody. [AI] 所以如果你想知道去哪里远离所有人。 here's the best places to go. [AI] 这里是最好的去处。 And every year. these areas get bigger. [AI] 每年。这些区域越来越大。 because every year. we are coming off the land globally. [AI] 因为每年。我们正在全球范围内走出这片土地。 We are moving into the cities. [AI] 我们正在迁入城市。 We are packing in more densely. [AI] 我们正在更密集地包装。 There are wolves again in Europe. [AI] 欧洲又有狼了。 and the wolves are moving west across the continent. [AI] 狼群正在穿越大陆向西移动。 Our world is changing. [AI] 我们的世界正在改变。 You have worries. [AI] 你有烦恼。 This is a map showing where the water falls on our planet. [AI] 这是一张地图,显示了水在我们星球上的下落。 We now know that. [AI] 我们现在知道了。 And you can look at where Çatalhöyük was. [AI] 你可以看看切塔尔胡克在哪里。 where three continents meet. Africa. Asia. and Europe. [AI] 三大洲交汇的地方。非洲亚洲还有欧洲。 and you can see there are a large number of people living there [AI] 你可以看到有很多人住在那里 in areas with very little water. [AI] 在水很少的地区。 And you can see areas in which there is a great deal of rainfall as well. [AI] 你也可以看到有大量降雨的地区。 And we can get a bit more sophisticated. [AI] 我们可以变得更复杂一些。 Instead of making the map be shaped by people. [AI] 而不是让地图由人来塑造。 we can shape the map by water. [AI] 我们可以用水来塑造这张地图。 and then we can change it every month [AI] 然后我们可以每个月更换一次 to show the amount of water [AI] 显示水量 falling on every small part of the globe. [AI] 落在地球的每一个角落。 And you see the monsoons moving around the planet. [AI] 你可以看到季风在地球上移动。 and the planet almost appears to have a heartbeat. [AI] 这颗行星似乎有心跳。 And all of this only became possible [AI] 而这一切只会成为可能 within my lifetime [AI] 在我有生之年 to see this is where we are living. [AI] 看看这就是我们生活的地方。 We have enough water. [AI] 我们有足够的水。 This is a map of where we grow our food in the world. [AI] 这是一张我们在世界上种植食物的地图。 This is the areas that we will rely on most for rice and maize and corn. [AI] 这是我们稻米、玉米和玉米最依赖的地区。 People worry that there won't be enough food. but we know. [AI] 人们担心没有足够的食物。但我们知道。 if we just ate less meat and fed less of the crops to animals. [AI] 如果我们只是少吃肉,少给动物喂庄稼。 there is enough food for everybody [AI] 每个人都有足够的食物 as long as we think of ourselves as one group of people. [AI] 只要我们把自己看成是一群人。 And we also know [AI] 我们也知道 about what we do [AI] 关于我们的工作 so terribly badly nowadays. [AI] 现在情况非常糟糕。 You will have seen this map of the world before. [AI] 你以前会看过这张世界地图的。 This is the map produced by taking satellite images. [AI] 这是通过拍摄卫星图像制作的地图。 if you remember those satellites around the planet [AI] 如果你还记得那些环绕地球的卫星 in the very first slide I showed. [AI] 在我展示的第一张幻灯片中。 and producing an image of what the Earth looks like at night. [AI] 制作出地球在夜间的样子。 When you normally see that map. [AI] 当你通常看到那张地图的时候。 on a normal map. the kind of map that most of you will be used to. [AI] 在法线贴图上。你们大多数人都会习惯的那种地图。 you think you are seeing a map of where people live. [AI] 你以为你看到的是一张人们居住的地图。 Where the lights are shining up is where people live. [AI] 灯火通明的地方就是人们居住的地方。 But here. on this image of the world. [AI] 但是在这里。关于这个世界的形象。 remember we've stretched the map again. [AI] 记住我们又把地图拉长了。 Everywhere has the same density of people on this map. [AI] 在这张地图上,每个地方的人口密度都是一样的。 If an area doesn't have people. [AI] 如果一个地区没有人。 we've shrunk it away [AI] 我们把它缩小了 to make it disappear. [AI] 让它消失。 So we're showing everybody [AI] 所以我们给大家看 with equal prominence. [AI] 同样突出。 Now. the lights no longer show you where people are. [AI] 现在灯光不再显示人们在哪里。 because people are everywhere. [AI] 因为到处都是人。 Now the lights on the map. [AI] 现在地图上的灯亮了。 the lights in London. the lights in Cairo. the lights in Tokyo. [AI] 伦敦的灯光。开罗的灯光。东京的灯光。 the lights on the Eastern Seaboard of the United States. [AI] 美国东海岸的灯光。 the lights show you where people live [AI] 灯光告诉你人们住在哪里 who are so profligate with energy [AI] 谁如此挥霍精力 that they can afford [AI] 他们能负担得起的 to spend money [AI] 花钱 powering lights to shine up into the sky. [AI] 为灯光提供动力,使其照亮天空。 so satellites can draw an image like this. [AI] 所以卫星可以画出这样的图像。 And the areas that are dark on the map [AI] 以及地图上的黑暗区域 are either areas where people do not have access to that much energy. [AI] 这两个地区的人们都无法获得那么多的能源。 or areas where people do. [AI] 或者是人们喜欢的地方。 but they have learned to stop shining the light up into the sky. [AI] 但是他们已经学会了停止把光照向天空。 And if I could show you this map animated over time. [AI] 如果我能给你看这张随时间变化的动画地图。 you would see that Tokyo has actually become darker. [AI] 你会看到东京实际上变得更黑了。 because ever since the tsunami in Japan. [AI] 因为自从日本发生海啸以来。 Japan has had to rely on a quarter less electricity [AI] 日本不得不减少四分之一的电力依赖 because it turned the nuclear power stations off. [AI] 因为它关闭了核电站。 And the world didn't end. [AI] 世界并没有结束。 You just shone less light [AI] 你只是照得不那么亮 up into the sky. [AI] 飞向天空。 There are a huge number [AI] 有很多 of good news stories in the world. [AI] 世界上的好消息。 Infant mortality is falling [AI] 婴儿死亡率正在下降 and has been falling at an incredible rate. [AI] 而且一直以令人难以置信的速度下降。 A few years ago. [AI] 几年前。 the number of babies dying in their first year of life in the world [AI] 世界上第一年死亡的婴儿数量 fell by five percent in just one year. [AI] 仅一年内就下降了5%。 More children are going to school [AI] 更多的孩子正在上学 and learning to read and write [AI] 学习阅读和写作 and getting connected to the Internet [AI] 以及连接到互联网 and going on to go to university [AI] 然后去上大学 than ever before at an incredible rate. [AI] 以前所未有的速度。 and the highest number of young people going to university in the world [AI] 也是世界上上上大学人数最多的年轻人 are women. not men. [AI] 她们是女人。不是男人。 I can give you good news story after good news story [AI] 我可以给你一个又一个好消息 about what is getting better in the planet. [AI] 关于地球上什么正在变得更好。 but we tend to concentrate [AI] 但我们倾向于集中精力 on the bad news that is immediate. [AI] 马上就有坏消息了。 Rebecca Solnit. I think. put it brilliantly. [AI] 丽贝卡·索尼特。我想。说得很精彩。 when she explained: "The accretion of incremental. imperceptible changes [AI] 当她解释说:“逐渐增加的,难以察觉的变化 which can constitute progress and which render our era [AI] 它可以构成进步,也可以使我们的时代进步 dramatically different from the past" -- [AI] 与过去大不相同”-- the past was much more stable -- [AI] 过去要稳定得多-- "a contrast obscured by the undramatic nature of gradual transformation. [AI] 这种对比被逐渐转变的平淡无奇性质所掩盖。 punctuated by occasional tumult." [AI] 偶尔有骚动。" Occasionally. terrible things happen. [AI] 偶尔地可怕的事情发生了。 You are shown those terrible things [AI] 你看到了那些可怕的事情 on the news every night of the week. [AI] 每周每晚都有新闻报道。 You are not told about the population slowing down. [AI] 没有人告诉你人口正在放缓。 You are not told about the world becoming more connected. [AI] 没有人告诉你世界变得越来越紧密。 You are not told about the incredible improvements in understanding. [AI] 没有人告诉你在理解上有了惊人的进步。 You are not told about how we are learning to begin [AI] 没有人告诉你我们是如何开始学习的 to waste less and consume less. [AI] 减少浪费,减少消耗。 This is my last map. [AI] 这是我最后一张地图。 On this map. we have taken the seas and the oceans out. [AI] 在这张地图上。我们把海洋和海洋都带走了。 Now you are just looking [AI] 现在你只是看看 at about 7.4 billion people with the map drawn in proportion to those people. [AI] 大约有74亿人按照这些人的比例绘制地图。 You're looking at over a billion in China. [AI] 中国有超过10亿的人口。 and you can see the largest city in the world in China. [AI] 你可以在中国看到世界上最大的城市。 but you do not know its name. [AI] 但是你不知道它的名字。 You can see that India [AI] 你可以看到印度 is in the center of this world. [AI] 在这个世界的中心。 You can see that Europe is on the edge. [AI] 你可以看到欧洲处于边缘。 And we in Exeter today [AI] 我们今天在埃克塞特 are on the far edge of the planet. [AI] 都在地球的边缘。 We are on a tiny scrap of rock off Europe [AI] 我们在欧洲的一小块岩石上 which contains less than one percent of the world's adults. [AI] 其中不到全世界成年人的百分之一。 and less than half a percent of the world's children. [AI] 世界上只有不到百分之半的儿童。 We are living in a stabilizing world. an urbanizing world. [AI] 我们生活在一个稳定的世界。一个城市化的世界。 an aging world. [AI] 一个老龄化的世界。 a connecting world. [AI] 一个连接的世界。 There are many. many things to be frightened about. [AI] 有很多。有很多事情值得害怕。 but there is no need for us to fear each other as much as we do. [AI] 但是我们没有必要像现在这样害怕对方。 and we need to see that we are now living in a new world. [AI] 我们需要看到我们现在生活在一个新的世界。 Thank you very much. [AI] 非常感谢你。 (Applause) [AI] (掌声)