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What images do we see from the rest of the world? 我们能从世界的其他地方 看见什么画面? We see natural disasters, 我们能看见天灾, war, terror. 战争、恐怖活动。 We see refugees, 我们能看见难民, and we see horrible diseases. 以及恐怖的疾病。 Right? 对吗? We see beautiful beaches, 我们看见美丽的沙滩、 cute animals, 可爱的动物、 beautiful nature, 动人的大自然、 cultural rites and stuff. 各种文化仪式等。 And then we're supposed to make the connection in our head 接下来我们应该在脑海里 把这些串连起来, and create a worldview out of this. 然后试着凭此创造一个世界观。 And how is that possible? 这怎么可能呢? I mean, the world seems so strange. 我是指世界看似太奇怪了。 And I don't think it is. 但同时,我并不完全赞同这一点。 I don't think the world is that strange, actually. 其实,我觉得世界并非 那么奇怪。 I've got an idea. 我有一个想法。 So, imagine the world as a street, 想象这个世界是一条街, where the poorest live on one end and the richest on the other, 街的一端住着最穷的人, 另一端住着最富有的人, and everyone in the world lives on this street. 而世界的其他人则住在 街道的中间。 You live there, I live there, 你住那儿,我也住那儿。 and the neighbors we have are the ones with the same income. 我们的邻居是那些跟我们 有着相同收入的人。 People that live in the same block as me, 跟我住同一栋楼的, they are from other countries, other cultures, other religions. 是来自其它国家、文化、宗教的人。 The street might look something like this. 这条街也许有着这样的布局。 And I was curious. 我觉得很好奇。 In Sweden where I live, 在我所住的瑞典, I've been meeting quite a lot of students. 我与许多学生打过交道。 And I wanted to know, 我想要知道, where would they think they belong on a street like this? 他们觉得他们会在这条街上的 哪一个地方呢? So we changed these houses into people. 于是我们把房子替换成了人。 This is the seven billion people that live in the world. 这是住在地球上的70亿人口。 And just by living in Sweden, most likely you belong there, 如果你住在瑞典的话, 你很可能会在这儿, which is the richest group. 也就是最富有的一群。 But the students, when you ask them, 但是那些学生,当你问他们时, they think they are in the middle. 他们觉得他们在中间。 And how can you understand the world 你要怎么去了解这个世界, when you see all these scary images from the world, 尤其是当你看见这些 来自世界各地恐怖的画面, and you think you live in the middle, while you're actually atop? 你还觉得你是住在中间而 不应该是在最上端的这一块吗? Not very easy. 不太容易判断。 So I sent out photographers 所以我派了摄影师 to 264 homes in 50 countries -- so far, still counting -- 到50个国家的264个家庭—— 这个数字还在增加—— and in each home, the photographers take the same set of photos. 在每个家庭里,摄影师会 拍摄同样一套照片。 They take the bed, 他们拍下床铺、 the stove, 炉灶、 the toys 玩具, and about 135 other things. 还有135件其它物件。 So we have 40,000 images or something at the moment, 目前为止,我们有4万多张相片, and it looks something like this. 这就是它们的样子。 Here we see, it says on the top, 这上面写着, "Families in the world by income," “世界家庭按收入分类,” and we have the street represented just beneath it, you can see. 就如你所看到的, 下面标有他们代表的街道。 And then we see some of the families we have visited. 然后我们看见一些 我们探访过的家庭。 We have the poorer to the left, the richer to the right, 我们把比较穷的家庭排在左边, 比较富有的排在右边, and everybody else in between, as the concept says. 其他人则在中间, 如同刚才的概念所说的。 We can go down and see the different families we have been to so far. 我们可以一直往下看到目前为止 所拍摄的所有不同的家庭。 Here, for instance, we have a family in Zimbabwe, 这里,举个例子, 有津巴布韦的家庭, one in India, one in Russia, and one in Mexico, for instance. 印度的,俄罗斯的, 还有墨西哥的,等等。 So we can go around and look at the families this way. 所以我们可以用这样的方式 看看这些家庭。 But of course, we can choose if we want to see some certain countries 当然,我们也可以选择看 一些特定国家的照片, and compare them, 然后做比较, or regions, or if we want, to see other things. 或按区域搜索, 如果要看其它东西。 So let's go to the front doors 好,让我们选择前门, and see what they look like. 看看它们长什么样子。 Go here, and this is the world by front doors, ordered by income. 这就是这个世界的前门, 按收入排列的搜索结果。 And we can see the big difference 我们也可看见其间有很大差别, from India, Philippines, China, Ukraine, in these examples, for instance. 比如印度的、菲律宾的、 中国的、乌克兰的等等。 What if we go into the home? 如果我们进入他们的家呢? We can look at beds. 我们可以选择看看床铺。 This is what beds can look like. 这就是那些床铺的样貌。 Doesn't look like the glossy magazines. 不像豪华杂志中那样。 Doesn't look like the scary images in the media. 也不像媒体那些恐怖的照片那样。 So remember that the students in Sweden, 还记得那些瑞典的学生吗? they thought they were in the middle of the world income. 他们觉得他们位于 世界收入的中间。 So let's go there. 那么让我们再来看看。 We zoom in here by filtering the street to the middle, 我们选择街道轴线, 然后拉到中间, like this, 选择中间的一小段, and then I ask the students: 然后我问那些学生: Is this what your bedroom looks like? 你的卧室是这样的吗? And they would actually not feel very at home. 他们觉得这些并不像他们的家。 So we go down and see, do they feel more at home here? 于是我们往下拉,再看看 他们是否觉得跟他们家相似。 And they would say, 他们说, no, this is not what a Swedish typical bedroom looks like. 不,这不是瑞典典型的卧室。 We go up here, 接着我们往上拉, and suddenly, they feel sort of at home. 突然间,他们觉得 跟自己的家一样了。 And we can see here in this image, 我们可以在这些照片中看到, we see bedrooms in China, Netherlands, 这些卧室有来自中国的、荷兰的、 South Korea, France and the United States, for instance. 韩国的、法国的和美国的等等。 So we can click here. 我们可以点击这些图片。 If we want to know more about the family, the home in which this bed stands, 如果我们想要知道更多有关 这个家庭、这张床所在的家, we can just click it and go to the family, 我们只需点进去, 就可以了解那个家庭, and we can see all the images from that family. 也可以看见来自 那个家庭的所有照片。 We can go this way, too. 任意浏览。 And of course, this is free for anyone to use. 当然,这些都是免费的。 So just go here, and please add more images, of course. 欢迎大家登陆这个网站, 当然您也可以上传照片。 My personal favorite that everyone always tries to make me not show, 我个人最喜欢的是 每个人总是不想我展示的, I'm going to show you now, and that's toilets, 而我现在就给你们看, 那就是厕所, because you're not really allowed to look at people's toilets, 因为其实其他人都不准 你看他们的厕所, but now we can just do it, right? 但我们现在可以这么做,不是吗? So here (Laughter) we have a lot of toilets. 那么这里(笑声) 我们有很多厕所的照片。 They look pretty much as we're used to, right? 它们看起来都跟我们 常用的类似,对吗? And they are in China, Netherlands, United States, Nepal and so forth, 这些照片来自中国、荷兰、 美国、尼泊尔等国家, Ukraine, France. 还有乌克兰、法国。 And they look pretty similar, right? 它们看起来大同小异。 But remember, we are in the top. 但要记得,我们在街道最右侧。 So what about checking all the toilets? 如果我们看看所有的厕所呢? Now it looks a bit different, doesn't it? 现在看起来有点不同了是吧? So this way we can visually browse through categories of imagery, 这样我们就可以通过视觉 浏览不同类别的画面, using photos as data. 以照片为数据。 But not everything works as a photo. 但不是每一件事都能用 照片来呈现。 Sometimes it's easier to understand what people do, 有时我们可以通过他们的 所作所为来了解他们, so we also do video snippets of everyday activities, 所以我们也以短片的形式录下 他们的日常活动, such as washing hands, doing laundry, 如洗手、洗衣服、 brushing teeth, and so on. 刷牙等等。 And I'm going to show you a short snippet of tooth-brushing, 我将为你们显示刷牙的短片, and we’re going to start at the top. 我们将从街道最右端开始。 So we see people brushing their teeth. 我们可以看见他们在刷牙。 Pretty interesting to see 有趣的是,我们看到 the same type of plastic toothbrush is being used in all these places 这些地方用的都是 同样的塑料牙刷、 in the same way, right? 同样的方法,对吗? Some are more serious than others -- 有些刷得比其他人更认真—— (Laughter) (笑声) but still, the toothbrush is there. 但是他们都用着牙刷。 And then, coming down to this poorer end, 然后,我们来到左端 比较贫穷的地区, then we will see people start using sticks, 我们将看见他们开始 用树枝, and they will sometimes use their finger to brush their teeth. 而有些则用手指来刷牙。 So this particular woman in Malawi, 这个来自马拉维的女人, when she brushes her teeth, 当她刷牙时, she scrapes some mud off from her wall 会从墙上刮下一些泥土, and she mixes it with water, and then she's brushing. 然后加点水,就这样刷牙。 Therefore, in the Dollar Street material, 于是,在《金钱街道》 这个网站的素材中, we have tagged this image 我们不但把这个画面的标签 not only as her wall, which it is, 设置为她的墙壁, but also as her toothpaste, 也设置为她的牙膏, because that is also what she uses it for. 因为她就是把它当牙膏用。 So we can say, in the poorer end of the street, 所以我们可以说,这条街 比较穷的这一端, you will use a stick or your finger, 你会用树枝或手指刷牙, you come to the middle, you will start using a toothbrush, 你来到中间这儿的时候, 你就开始使用牙刷, and then you come up to the top, 然后在最富有的这端, and you will start using one each. 每个人就会开始有自己的一支。 Pretty nice, not sharing a toothbrush with your grandma. 不需要跟你的奶奶共用 牙刷实在是太美妙了。 And you can also look at some countries. 你也可以看看一些国家。 Here, we have the income distribution within the US, 这是美国的收入分布曲线, most people in the middle. 大多数人都在中间。 We have a family we visited in the richer end, the Howards. 我们探访了一些比较 富有的家庭,如霍华德一家。 We can see their home here. 这里我们可以看到他们的房子。 And we also visited a family in the poorer end, down here. 我们也探访了比较贫穷的 这一端的家庭,在这里。 And then what we can do now is we can do instant comparisons 然后我们现在可以做的 是拿他们各自家里的物件 of things in their homes. 做即时比较。 Let's look in their cutlery drawer. 我们看看他们的餐具抽屉。 So, observe the Hadleys: 注意哈德雷家的: they have all their cutlery in a green plastic box. 他们所有的餐具都放在 一个绿色的塑料盒子内, and they have a few different types and some of them are plastic, 餐具的类型千差万别, 有些还是塑料的, while the Howards, they have this wooden drawer 而霍华德的家中, 他们则设置了这个木质抽屉, with small wooden compartments in it 还专门分了区, and a section for each type of cutlery. 每个格子只存放同一类别的餐具。 We can add more families, 我们也可加入更多家庭, and we can see kitchen sinks, 比较他们的厨房水槽, or maybe living rooms. 或者是客厅。 Of course, we can do the same in other countries. 当然,我们也可以去其它 国家做相同的事。 So we go to China, we pick three families. 我们去中国,选三个家庭, we look at their houses, 看看他们的房子, we can look at their sofas, 可以看到他们的沙发, we can look at their stoves. 他们的炉灶。 And when you see these stoves, 当你看这些炉灶时, I think it's obvious that it's a stupid thing 我认为,很明显, 有一种愚昧的想法, that usually, when we think about other countries, 就是通常当我们想起 其它国家时, we think they have a certain way of doing things. 我们会觉得那个国家的人 都以特定的方式做事。 But look at these stoves. 但看看这些炉灶。 Very different, right, 很不一样是吧, because it depends on what income level you have, 那是因为炉灶会因 收入阶级而改变, how you're going to cook your food. 相应改变的还有 烹调食物的方法。 But the cool thing is when we start comparing across countries. 但是当我们开始比较不同的国家时, 会发生更有趣的事情。 So here we have China and the US. 比如中国和美国。 See the big overlap between these two. 这两个国家有一大部分是重叠的。 So we picked the two homes we have already seen in these countries, 我们选了这两个国家中已经 探访过的两个家庭, the Wus and the Howards. 吴家和霍华德家庭。 Standing in their bedroom, 站在他们的卧室内, pretty hard to tell which one is China and which one is the US, right? 很难分别哪间是中国的, 哪间是美国的,对不对? Both have brown leather sofas, 他们都有褐色的皮质沙发, and they have similar play structures. 他们有相似的游乐场。 Most likely both are made in China, 很有可能两套都是中国制造, so, I mean, that's not very strange -- 我想说的是—— (Laughter) (笑声) but that is similar. 它们看起来相似就不足为奇了。 We can of course go down to the other end of the street, 我们当然也可下到 这条街的另一端, adding Nigeria. 加入尼日利亚。 So let's compare two homes in China and Nigeria. 现在我们来比较一下分别来自 中国和尼日利亚的两个家庭。 Looking at the family photos, 看看他们的全家福, they do not look like they have a lot in common, do they? 他们看起来没有很多共同点,对吗? But start seeing their ceiling. 但我们先看看他们的楼顶。 They have a plastic shield and grass. 都有塑料的挡板和干草。 They have the same kind of sofa, 他们有同样的沙发, they store their grain in similar ways, 以类似的方式存放干粮, they're going to have fish for dinner, 晚餐都吃鱼, and they're boiling their water in identical ways. 还用一模一样的方式烧水。 So if we would visit any of these homes, 所以如果我们有机会探访 这样的任何一个家庭, there's a huge risk that we would say we know anything 我们很有可能会说,我们知道 about the specific way you do things in China or Nigeria, 中国人或尼日利亚人都以 特定的方法做事, while, looking at this, it's quite obvious -- 而其实,很明显的, 我们看到—— this is how you do things on this income level. 这是你身处这个 收入阶级的生活方式。 That is what you can see when you go through the imagery in Dollar Street. 这就是你浏览《金钱街道》时 所能看到的画面。 So going back to the figures, 好,回到这些数字, the seven billion people of the world, 全世界70亿人口, now we're going to do a quick recap. 现在我们简单地重述要点。 We're going to look at comparisons of things in the poorest group: 我们将会比较最穷那群人 所拥有的东西: beds, 床铺、 roofs, 屋顶、 cooking. 烹饪方式。 And observe, in all these comparisons, 仔细观察,这些对比中, their homes are chosen 我们特意选择这些房子, so they are in completely different places of the world. 因为它们坐落于世界 完全不同的地区。 But what we see is pretty identical. 但我们看见的都大同小异。 So the poorest billion cooking 所以最穷那十几亿人的烹饪方式 would look somewhat the same in these two places; 会跟这两个地区的差不多; you might not have shoes; 你可能没有鞋子穿; eating, if you don't have a spoon; 用手进食,如果你没有汤匙; storing salt would be similar whether you're in Asia or in Africa; 储存食盐的方式也很相似, 无论你在亚洲还是非洲; and going to the toilet would be pretty much the same experience 另外,你上厕所的体验 也会十分相似, whether you're in Nigeria or Nepal. 不管你是在尼日利亚 还是尼泊尔。 In the middle, we have a huge group of five billion, 位于中间的是很大的 人口规模,有五十亿, but here we can see you will have electric light, most likely; 但这里我们可以看见你 很有可能会有电灯; you will no longer sleep on the floor; 你不再睡在地上; you will store your salt in a container; 你会把盐存放在容器里; you will have more than one spoon; 你会有好几把汤匙; you will have more than one pen; 会有几只笔; the ceiling is no longer leaking that much; 天花板不再漏那么多水; you will have shoes; 你会有鞋子穿; you might have a phone, 可能还会有手机、 toys, 玩具、 and produce waste. 以及生产垃圾。 Coming to our group up here, 来到街道最右端, similar shoes, Jordan, US. 相似的鞋子,约旦的和美国的。 We have sofas, fruits, hairbrushes, 相似的沙发、水果、梳子、 bookshelves, 书架、 toilet paper in Tanzania, Palestine, 厕纸,在坦桑尼亚和巴勒斯坦, hard to distinguish 很难通过这个加以分辨 if we would sit in US, Palestine or Tanzania from this one. 我们是坐在美国,巴勒斯坦还是 坦桑尼亚的厕所。 Vietnam, Kenya: 越南,肯尼亚: wardrobes, lamps, black dogs, floors, soap, 衣橱、灯、黑狗、 地板、肥皂、 laundry, clocks, computers, 洗衣机、时钟、电脑、 phones, and so on, right? 手机等等,看到了吧? So we have a lot of similarities all over the world, 在世界各地我们 都能找到相似之处, and the images we see in the media, 我们在媒体所看到的画面 they show us the world is a very, very strange place. 向我们显现的世界 是个非常非常奇怪的地方。 But when we look at the Dollar Street images, 而当我们看看《金钱街道》上的图片时, they do not look like that. 世界就呈现出了真实的样子。 So using Dollar Street, 所以通过《金钱街道》, we can use photos as data, 我们可以用图片为数据, and country stereotypes -- 而有关某个国家的偏见—— they simply fall apart. 将站不住脚。 So the person staring back at us from the other side of the world 那些从世界另一端 凝视我们的人 actually looks quite a lot like you. 其实和我们很相似。 And that implies both a call to action 这表示双方都可以追求梦想, and a reason for hope. 都可以拥有希望。 Thank you. 谢谢。 (Applause) (掌声)