声明: 本站全部内容源自互联网,不进行任何盈利行为

仅做 整合 / 美化 处理

首页: https://dream-plan.cn



Not that long ago, 就在不久前, I received an invitation 我受到邀请, to spend a few days at the historic home of James Madison. 去历史博物馆中詹姆斯·麦迪逊 ( James Madison)的故居呆几天。 James Madison, of course, 没错,这位詹姆斯·麦迪逊 was the fourth president of the United States, 就是美国的第四任总统, the father of the Constitution, 宪法之父, the architect of the Bill of Rights. 人权法案的缔造者。 And as a historian, 作为一个历史学家, I was really excited to go to this historic site, 得知能够前往这个历史遗迹,让我感到非常兴奋, because I understand and appreciate the power of place. 因为我理解和欣赏这个地方的魔力。 Now, Madison called his estate Montpelier. 麦迪逊称他的庄园为 “蒙彼利埃”(Montpelier)。 And Montpelier is absolutely beautiful. 蒙彼利埃非常漂亮。 It's several thousand acres of rolling hills, 那里有着几千英亩连绵起伏的群山, farmland and forest, 农田和森林, with absolutely breathtaking views of the Blue Ridge Mountains. 以及蓝岭山脉那令人惊叹的景色。 But it's a haunting beauty, 但那是一种凄苦的美, because Montpelier was also a slave labor camp. 因为蒙彼利埃也是一个奴隶聚集地。 You see, James Madison enslaved more than 100 people 要知道,詹姆斯·麦迪逊在他的一生中 over the course of his lifetime. 拥有过 100 多个奴隶。 And he never freed a single soul, 他从未释放过任何一个灵魂, not even upon his death. 甚至在他死后也没有。 The centerpiece of Montpelier is Madison's mansion. 位于蒙彼利埃中心的,是麦迪逊的宅邸。 Now this is where James Madison grew up, 这是詹姆斯·麦迪逊长大的地方, this is where he returned to after his presidency, 也是他在总统任期结束后回到的地方, this is where he eventually died. 他最终也在这里溘然长逝。 And the centerpiece of Madison's mansion is his library. 而麦迪逊宅邸的核心,是他的图书馆。 This room on the second floor, 这个二楼的房间, where Madison conceived and conceptualized the Bill of Rights. 是麦迪逊将《人权法案》概念化的地方。 When I visited for the first time, 当我第一次去参观的时候, the director of education, Christian Cotz -- 那里的教育总监,克里斯蒂安·考兹(Christian Cotz)—— cool white dude -- 一个酷酷的白人哥们—— (Laughter) (笑声) took me almost immediately to the library. 马上就带我去了图书馆。 And it was amazing, being able to stand in this place where such an important moment in American history happened. 能够站在这个见证了美国历史上如此重要时刻的地方,真是太棒了。 But then after a little while there, 但过了一段时间, Christian actually took me downstairs to the cellars of the mansion. 克里斯蒂安把我带到了宅邸的地下室。 Now, in the cellars of the mansion, 这个地下室 that's where the enslaved African Americans who managed the house spent most of their time. 是非裔美国人被奴役的地方,他们大半辈子都在打理宅邸的事务。 It's also where they were installing a new exhibition on slavery in America. 他们也在那里布置了一个关于美国奴隶制的新展厅。 And while we were there, 当我们在那儿的时候, Christian instructed me to do something I thought was a little bit strange. 克里斯蒂安指示我做的事让我觉得有点奇怪。 He told me to take my hand 他让我伸出我的手, and place it on the brick walls of the cellar and to slide it along, 放在地窖的砖墙上滑动, until I felt these impressions or ridges in the face of the brick. 直到我在砖块的正面感觉到有一些印记或隆起。 Now look, 要知道, I was going to be staying on-site on this former slave plantation 我将要在这个曾经的奴隶种植园里 for a couple of days, 呆上好几天, so I wasn't trying to upset any white people. 所以我并不打算让任何白人感到不安。 (Laughter) (笑声) Because when this was over, 因为当这一切结束后, I wanted to make sure that I could get out. 我想确定我还能出去。 (Laughter) (笑声) But as I'm actually sliding my hand along the cellar wall, 但当我真的用手沿着地窖的墙摸索, I couldn't help but think about my daughters, 我忍不住想到了我的女儿, and my youngest one in particular, 也是我最小的孩子, who was only about two or three years old at the time, 当时她只有两三岁, because every time she hopped out of our car, 因为每次她从车里跳下来, she would take her hand and slide it along the outside, 都会伸出手,沿着车的外壳滑动, which is absolutely disgusting. 这太不卫生了。 And then -- 然后, and then, if I couldn't get to her in time, 如果我不能及时赶过去制止她, she would take her fingers and pop them in her mouth, 她就会把脏兮兮的小手塞进嘴里, which would drive me absolutely crazy. 于是我就彻底抓狂了。 So this is what I'm thinking about while I'm supposed to be a historian. 然而作为一名历史学家,我当时想到的只有这些。 (Laughter) (笑声) But then, I actually do feel these impressions in the brick. 但是,我确实能感受到这些墙上的印痕。 I feel these ridges in the brick. 我感受着砖上的这些隆起。 And it takes a second to realize what they are. 我们需要花一点时间去了解它们是什么。 What they are are tiny hand prints. 它们实际上,是小小的手印。 Because all of the bricks at James Madison's estate 因为詹姆斯·麦迪逊庄园中的所有砖块 were made by the children that he enslaved. 都是他奴役的孩子们制作的。 And that's when it hit me 就在那时,我突然意识到 that the library 那座图书馆, in which James Madison conceives and conceptualizes the Bill of Rights 詹姆斯·麦迪逊构思并使《人权法案》概念化的地方, rests on a foundation of bricks made by the children that he enslaved. 是由他所奴役的孩子们所制造的砖块搭建起来的。 And this is hard history. 这是一段沉重的历史。 It's hard history, because it's difficult to imagine the kind of inhumanity 这段历史很沉重, 因为我们难以想象这种不人道的程度: that leads one to enslave children 奴役儿童 to make bricks for your comfort and convenience. 来制造砖块,为自己提供舒适和方便。 It's hard history, 这段历史很沉重, because it's hard to talk about the violence of slavery, 因为很难开口描述关于奴隶制的暴力, the beatings, the whippings, the kidnappings, 那些殴打、鞭打、绑架, the forced family separations. 那些被迫的家庭分离。 It's hard history, because it's hard to teach white supremacy, 这是沉重的历史,因为很难教授白人至上主义者, which is the ideology that justified slavery. 这是一种为奴隶制辩护的意识形态。 And so rather than confront hard history, 于是与其直面沉重的历史, we tend to avoid it. 我们倾向于逃避它。 Now, sometimes that means just making stuff up. 有时候,这意味着篡改历史。 I can't tell you how many times I've heard people say 我记不清有多少次听到人们说, that "states' rights" was the primary cause of the Civil War. “州的权利”是内战爆发的首要原因。 That would actually come as a surprise to the people who fought in the Civil War. 这会让那些参加过内战的人感到非常诧异。 (Laughter) (笑声) Sometimes, we try to rationalize hard history. 有时候,我们试着为沉重的历史寻找理由。 When people visit Montpelier -- 当人们参观蒙彼利埃庄园时—— and by "people," in this instance, I mean white people -- 这个例子中的“人们”,我指的是白人—— when they visit Montpelier 当他们参观蒙彼利埃, and learn about Madison enslaving people, 了解到麦迪逊蓄奴的事实时, they often ask, 他们经常问, "But wasn't he a good master?" “但他不是一个好的主人吗?” A "good master?" 一个“好主人”? There is no such thing as a good master. 事实上,根本没有所谓的好主人, There is only worse and worser. 只有糟糕的和更糟糕的。 And sometimes, 有时, we just pretend the past didn't happen. 我们只是假装历史没有发生。 I can't tell you how many times I've heard people say, 我记不清有多少次听到人们说, "It's hard to imagine slavery existing outside of the plantation South." “很难想象奴隶制存在于南方种植园之外的地方。" No, it ain't. 不,不是这样的。 Slavery existed in every American colony, 奴隶制存在于每一个美国殖民地, slavery existed in my home state of New York 也存在于我的家乡纽约州, for 50 years after the American Revolution. 一直持续到美国独立战争后的 50 年。 So why do we do this? 那么我们为什么要这样做呢? Why do we avoid confronting hard history? 为什么我们要避免直面沉重的历史? Literary performer and educator Regie Gibson 文学表演者兼教育家雷吉·吉布森(Regie Gibson) had the truth of it when he said 曾经一语中的: that our problem as Americans is we actually hate history. 美国人的问题是,我们讨厌历史。 What we love is nostalgia. 我们总是喜欢 怀旧。 Nostalgia. 怀旧。 We love stories about the past 我们喜欢关于过去的那些 that make us feel comfortable about the present. 能让我们对现在感到满足的故事。 But we can't keep doing this. 但我们不能再这样下去了。 George Santayana, the Spanish writer and philosopher, 西班牙作家和哲学家乔治·桑塔亚那(George Santayana)曾说, said that those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. “那些忘记过去的人注定要重蹈覆辙。” Now as a historian, I spend a lot of time thinking about this very statement, 作为一名历史学家,我花了很多时间理解这句话, and in a sense, it applies to us in America. 在某种意义上,这适用于所有美国人。 But in a way, it doesn't. 但在某种程度上,它又不适合。 Because, inherent in this statement, 因为这个表述的内在含义是, is the notion that at some point, 在某个时间点上, we stopped doing the things that have created inequality in the first place. 我们一开始就停止了那些造成不平等的事情。 And a harsh reality is, 而残酷的现实是, we haven't. 我们并没有停止。 Consider the racial wealth gap. 以种族贫富差距为例。 Wealth is generated by accumulating resources in one generation 财富积累往往是通过一代人积累资源, and transferring them to subsequent generations. 并传递给后代来实现的。 Median white household wealth is 147,000 dollars. 白人家庭的财富中位数是 14 万 7000 美元。 Median Black household wealth is four thousand dollars. 而黑人家庭的财富中位数是 4000 美元。 How do you explain this growing gap? 你如何解释这种日益扩大的差距? Hard history. 沉重的历史。 My great-great-grandfather was born enslaved in Jasper County, Georgia, in the 1850s. 在 19 世纪 50 年代,我的高曾祖父一出生就成为了佐治亚州贾斯珀郡的一名奴隶。 While enslaved, he was never allowed to accumulate anything, 在被奴役的那段时期,他不被允许积累任何财富, and he was emancipated with nothing. 即使被释放时,他也一无所有。 He was never compensated for the bricks that he made. 他未曾从他制造的砖中获得任何补偿。 My great-grandfather was also born in Jasper County, Georgia, in the 1870s, 19 世纪 70 年代,我的曾祖父也出生于佐治亚州贾斯珀县, and he actually managed to accumulate a fair bit of land. 他成功地积累了大量土地。 But then, in nineteen-teens, Jim Crow took that land from him. 但是,在 20 世纪 10 年代,吉姆·克劳(Jim Crow)夺走了他的土地。 And then Jim Crow took his life. 还夺去了他的生命。 My grandfather, Leonard Jeffries Senior, 我的祖父,老伦纳德·杰弗里斯 (Leonard Jeffries Senior) was born in Georgia, 也出生于乔治亚州, but there was nothing left for him there, 但没有任何遗产可以继承, so he actually grew up in Newark, New Jersey. 于是他小时候就搬去了新泽西的纽瓦克市。 And he spent most of his life working as a custodian. 在那里,他当了大半辈子看门人。 Job discrimination, segregated education and redlining 就业歧视、隔离教育和地区贷款歧视法案 kept him from ever breaking into the middle class. 使他永远无法跻身中产阶级。 And so when he passed away in the early 1990s, 当他在上世纪 90 年代初去世的时候, he left to his two sons 他留给了两个儿子的 nothing more than a life-insurance policy 仅仅是一份人寿保险单而已, that was barely enough to cover his funeral expenses. 还不够支付他的丧葬费用。 Now my parents, both social workers, 我的父母都是社会工作者, they actually managed to purchase a home in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York, in 1980, for 55,000 dollars. 于 1980 年在纽约布鲁克林的皇冠高地花了 55000 美元买了一套房子。 Now Crown Heights, at the time, was an all-Black neighborhood, 皇冠高地在当时是一个全黑人社区, and it was kind of rough. 环境比较差。 My brother and I often went to sleep, by the mid-1980s, hearing gunshots. 我和哥哥常常都是伴着枪声入睡的,这种情况一直持续到 1980 年代中期。 But my parents protected us, 然而我的父母保护了我们, and my parents also held onto that home. 同时也保住了那座房子。 For 40 years. 40 年了, And they're still there. 它们还在那里。 But something quintessentially American happened about 20 years ago. 但是 20 年前,发生了一件典型的美国事件。 About 20 years ago, 大约 20 年前的一天晚上, they went to sleep one night in an all-Black neighborhood, 他们在一个全是黑人的社区里睡觉, and they woke up the next morning in an all-white neighborhood. 第二天醒来,却发现身在一个全是白人的社区里。 (Laughter) (笑声) And as a result of gentrification, 由于中产阶级化, not only did all their neighbors mysteriously disappear, 不仅是他们的所有邻居都神秘地消失了, but the value of their home skyrocketed. 而且他们的房价也开始暴涨。 So that home that they purchased for 55,000 dollars -- 所以当年他们花 55000 美元买的房子—— at 29 percent interest, by the way -- 顺便说一句,当时的利率是 29%—— that home is now worth 30 times what they paid it for. 现在的市场价已经涨到了原来的 30 倍。 Thirty times. 30 倍。 Do the math with me. 一起算一下。 That's 55,000 times 30, carry the zeros -- 55000 乘以 30,后面的 0 别数错了—— That's a lot of money. 那可是数不清的钱啊。 (Laughter) (笑声) So that means, 这就意味着, as their single and sole asset, 他们这唯一的资产 when the time comes for them to pass that asset on to my brother and I, 会在时机成熟的时候传给我和我弟弟, that will be the first time in my family's history, 这将是我们家族 more than 150 years after the end of slavery, 在奴隶制结束后的 150 多年, that there will be a meaningful transfer of wealth in my family. 历史上第一次有意义的家族财富继承。 And it's not because family members haven't saved, 这并不是因为家庭成员没有积蓄、 haven't worked hard, 没有努力工作、 haven't valued education. 没有重视教育。 It's because of hard history. 而是因为那段沉重的历史。 So when I think about the past, 所以当我想起过去, my concern about not remembering it 我担心记不住历史, is not that we will repeat it if we don't remember it. 并不是因为会重蹈覆辙, My concern, my fear is that if we don't remember the past, 我所忧虑、恐惧的是,如果我们不记得过去, we will continue it. 我们就会持续犯错。 We will continue to do the things 我们将继续那些 that created inequality and injustice in the first place. 从一开始就造成了不平等和不公正的事情。 So what we must do 所以我们必须做的是, is we must disrupt the continuum of hard history. 我们必须打破沉重历史的持续。 And we can do this by seeking truth. 我们可以通过寻求真理来做到这一点。 By confronting hard history directly. 通过直面沉重的历史, By magnifying hard history for all the world to see. 通过放大沉重的历史,让全世界都看到, We can do this by speaking truth. 可以通过说出事实来做到这一点。 Teachers teaching hard history to their students. 教师为他们的学生讲授艰难的历史。 To do anything else is to commit educational malpractice. 不这样做,就是犯了教育上的错误。 And parents have to speak truth to their children, 父母必须和他们的孩子讲述事实, so that they understand 让他们明白 where we have come from as a nation. 我们的国家从哪里来。 And finally, we must all act on truth. 最后,我们都必须按照真理行事。 Individually and collectively, 不论是个人还是集体, publicly and privately, 公开还是私下里, in small ways and in large ways. 在小的方面还是大的方面。 We must do the things that will bend the arc of the moral universe towards justice. 我们都必须做一些事情,使道德世界的弧线朝着正义的方向弯曲。 To do nothing is to be complicit in inequality. 无所作为就是与不平等串通一气。 History reminds us 历史提醒我们: that we, as a nation, 我们作为一个国家, stand on the shoulders of political giants like James Madison. 站在像詹姆斯·麦迪逊一样的政治巨人的肩膀上。 But hard history reminds us that we, as a nation, 但沉重的历史同时提醒我们:我们作为一个国家, also stand on the shoulders of enslaved African American children. 也要站在被奴役的非裔美国儿童的肩膀上。 Little Black boys and little Black girls 黑人小男孩和黑人小女孩, who, with their bare hands, 他们赤手空拳, made the bricks that serve as the foundation for this nation. 用一块块砖头垒起了这个国家的根基。 And if we are serious about creating a fair and just society, 如果我们真的想创造一个公平公正的社会, then we would do well to remember that, 那就要牢记这段历史, and we would do well to remember them. 牢记被奴役的人们。 Thank you. 谢谢! (Applause) (掌声)