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I worked as a war reporter for 15 years 做了十五年战地记者后, before I realized that I really had a problem. 我才意识到自己出了问题。 There was something really wrong with me. 我整个人都不对劲, This was about a year before 9/11, and America wasn't at war yet. 这事大概发生在9/11事件前一年,当时美国还没处于战乱中。 We weren't talking about PTSD. 人们尚未谈及PTSD。 We were not yet talking about the effect of trauma and war on the human psyche. 也未提及伤痛和战争给人带来的心灵创伤。 I'd been in Afghanistan for a couple of months 我同北部联盟在阿富汗待过几个月, with the Northern Alliance as they were fighting the Taliban. 正值阿富汗与塔利班交战。 And at that point the Taliban had an air force, 当时,塔利班有一支空军部队。 they had fighter planes, they had tanks, they had artillery, 他们还有战斗机,坦克和大炮。 and we really got hammered pretty badly a couple of times. 有好几次,我们着实遭到了重创。 We saw some very ugly things. 也目睹过一些恶劣行径。 But I didn't really think it affected me. 但我确实没想过这事会影响到我。 I didn't think much about it. 我没怎么去想过它。 I came home to New York, where I live. 我返回纽约,回到居所。 Then one day I went down into the subway, 然后有天,我走进地铁, and for the first time in my life, 这辈子第一次, I knew real fear. 我感受到了真正的恐惧。 I had a massive panic attack. 莫大的恐慌向我袭来, I was way more scared than I had ever been in Afghanistan. 我可比当时在阿富汗要来得惶恐得多。 Everything I was looking at seemed like it was going to kill me, 眼前所见的一切似乎都想要我的命, but I couldn't explain why. 但我不能解释为何。 The trains were going too fast. 列车开得飞快, There were too many people. 周围太多人, The lights were too bright. 灯光过于亮, Everything was too loud, everything was moving too quickly. 万物喧闹着,飞快晃动着。 I backed up against a support column and just waited for it. 我靠在一根支柱边,就只是静待其变。 When I couldn't take it any longer, I ran out of the subway station 在自己忍无可忍之时,我冲出地铁站, and walked wherever I was going. 像只没头苍蝇一通瞎走。 Later, I found out that what I had was short-term PTSD: 之后我才知晓,当时自己患上的是短期PTSD—— post-traumatic stress disorder. 也就是“战后孤独感症候群”。 We evolved as animals, as primates, to survive periods of danger, 我们从动物、人猿演化而来,在危险情境中生存了下来, and if your life has been in danger, 如果你的生命处于危险的情境当中, you want to react to unfamiliar noises. 你会想对不熟悉的噪音作出反应。 You want to sleep lightly, wake up easily. 你会浅眠,而且很容易惊醒。 You want to have nightmares and flashbacks of the thing that could kill you. 你就会做噩梦并回忆起那些差点把你杀掉的事情。 You want to be angry because it makes you predisposed to fight, 你会变得很生气,因为它会让你进入准备战斗的状态, or depressed, because it keeps you out of circulation a little bit. 或者变得绝望,因为它会让你有点喘不过气来, Keeps you safe. 你会想随时保持自己的安全。 It's not very pleasant, but it's better than getting eaten. 这并不令人愉快,但比被恐惧吞噬来得好。 Most people recover from that pretty quickly. 大多数人能很快走出这个阴影。 It takes a few weeks, a few months. 大概需要几个星期,或是几个月。 I kept having panic attacks, but they eventually went away. 我一直经历着这种痛苦的打击,但我最后还是康復了。 I had no idea it was connected to the war that I'd seen. 我不知道这和自己目睹过的战乱有所相连。 I just thought I was going crazy, 我只觉得自己要疯了, and then I thought, well, now I'm not going crazy anymore. 之后我想,好吧,现在我再也不会发疯了。 About 20 percent of people, however, 然而,大约有20%的人, wind up with chronic, long-term PTSD. 最后演变成慢性、长期的PTSD They are not adapted to temporary danger. 他们不是要去面对短期的危险, They are maladapted for everyday life, 而是不能适应日常的生活, unless they get help. 除非有人能帮他们一把。 We know that the people who are vulnerable to long-term PTSD 我们都知道那些容易转变为长期PTSD的人, are people who were abused as children, 这些人也许是童年时蒙受过非人虐待、 who suffered trauma as children, 也许是年幼时遭到精神创伤、 people who have low education levels, 也许是没有受过高等教育的人, people who have psychiatric disorders in their family. 也许是有精神病的家庭遗传, If you served in Vietnam 如果你曾在越南服役, and your brother is schizophrenic, 而你的兄弟是精神分裂病患者, you're way more likely to get long-term PTSD from Vietnam. 你很有可能因越南的经历而患上PTSD。 So I started to study this as a journalist, 因此我开始以记者的身份,来对这个问题进行调查研究, and I realized that there was something really strange going on. 并且意识到,确实这其中有所异常。 The numbers seemed to be going in the wrong direction. “人数”似乎朝着错误的方向不断发展。 Every war that we have fought as a country, 每一次我们国家参与的战争, starting with the Civil War, ——从独立战争开始, the intensity of the combat has gone down. 战争的强度开始下降。 As a result, the casualty rates have gone down. 所以,伤亡率也开始下降。 But disability rates have gone up. 但伤残率却开始上升, They should be going in the same direction, 它们本该是朝同一方向进发, but they're going in different directions. 却走上了截然不同的道路。 The recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have produced, thank God, 感谢上帝,最近在伊拉克和阿富汗的战争仅造成 a casualty rate about one third of what it was in Vietnam. 越南战争伤亡率的三分之一。 But they've also created -- 但是,它们也导致了—— they've also produced three times the disability rates. 多达三倍的伤残率。 Around 10 percent of the US military is actively engaged in combat, 将近有 10% 的美国军人经历过战场, 10 percent or under. 或者说是10%以下。 They're shooting at people, killing people, 他们在战场上开枪,杀人, getting shot at, seeing their friends get killed. 中弹、或者看着他们的战友倒下。 It's incredibly traumatic. 这简直是莫大的精神创伤。 But it's only about 10 percent of our military. 这仅仅是10%的军人。 But about half of our military has filed for some kind of PTSD compensation from the government. 然而从政府的档案中,我们看到有一半的军人正在领取 PTSD 的救济金。 And suicide doesn't even fit into this in a very logical way. 从逻辑看来,自杀人数根本不符合这个数据。 We've all heard the tragic statistic of 22 vets a day, on average, 我们都听说过一个不幸的统计数据,平均每天,有22个退伍军人, in this country, killing themselves. 就在这个国家,选择自杀。 Most people don't realize 大部分人还没发觉 that the majority of those suicides are veterans of the Vietnam War, 这些自杀案例大多数是从越南战争回国的老兵, that generation, 在那一个年代, and their decision to take their own lives actually might not be related 他们想要自我了断的决定, to the war they fought 50 years earlier. 事实上或许与那场50年前的战争无关。 In fact, there's no statistical connection between combat and suicide. 实际上,目前没有战争与自杀是有关连性的统计数据。 If you're in the military and you're in a lot of combat, 假如你在军队中参与过很多场战役, you're no more likely to kill yourself than if you weren't. 你更不会倾向于选择自杀, In fact, one study found 一项研究显示, that if you deploy to Iraq or Afghanistan, 假如你参与过伊拉克或者阿富汗战争, you're actually slightly less likely to commit suicide later. 其实你是更不可能在往后选择自杀的。 I studied anthropology in college. 我在大学时期研究人类学, I did my fieldwork on the Navajo reservation. 到那瓦侯保护区做过实地调查, I wrote a thesis on Navajo long-distance runners. 写过当地长跑运动员的相关论文。 And recently, while I was researching PTSD, 而最近,在我研究PTSD时, I had this thought. 突然有了这样的想法。 I thought back to the work I did when I was young, 我想起我年轻时做过的研究, and I thought, I bet the Navajo, the Apache, the Comanche -- 我在想,我敢说那瓦侯人,阿帕切人,科曼奇人 I mean, these are very warlike nations -- 我的意思是,——這些好戰的民族—— I bet they weren't getting PTSD like we do. 我打赌他们不像我们这样会患上PTSD。 When their warriors came back from fighting the US military 当他们的战士从抵抗美国军队的战争中回到家乡 or fighting each other, 或者从部落之间的互斗中归来时, I bet they pretty much just slipped right back into tribal life. 我敢说他们肯定很容易就重新融入部落生活。 And maybe what determines 也许, the rate of long-term PTSD 决定长期 PTSD 的因素, isn't what happened out there, 不是在战场上发生了什麽, but the kind of society you come back to. 而是你回到了什麽样的社会。 And maybe if you come back to a close, cohesive, tribal society, 要是回到一个紧密联繫的、团结的、部落化的社会, you can get over trauma pretty quickly. 你能很快度过创伤期。 And if you come back to an alienating, modern society, 但假如你回到的是一个人与人疏远的现代社会, you might remain traumatized your entire life. 或许会以郁郁终生结尾。 In other words, maybe the problem isn't them, the vets; 换句话来说,也许问题不出在他们、那些退伍军人身上; maybe the problem is us. 而有可能是我们社会自身的问题。 Certainly, modern society is hard on the human psyche 的确,现代社会对人类的精神带来了重大的压力, by every metric that we have. 这些压力来自于我们社会上各种的衡量标准。 As wealth goes up in a society, 随着社会财富积累, the suicide rate goes up instead of down. 自杀率不减反增。 If you live in modern society, 如果你住在现代社会中, you're up to eight times more likely 有多达 8 倍的几率, to suffer from depression in your lifetime 毕生遭受更多、 than if you live in a poor, agrarian society. 比生活在贫困农耕社会,还要多的忧愁烦恼。 Modern society has probably produced the highest rates of suicide 现代社会可能引发了有所以来超高的自杀率、 and depression and anxiety and loneliness and child abuse ever in human history. 抑郁症、焦虑症、孤僻症 和受到童年虐待的可能,这比例要比历史任一时代都高。 I saw one study 我曾看过一项研究, that compared women in Nigeria, 它把尼日利亚的妇女, one of the most chaotic and violent and corrupt and poorest countries in Africa, 也就是非洲最混乱、暴力、堕落、最贫穷的国家之一, to women in North America. 和北美的女性进行比较。 And the highest rates of depression were urban women in North America. 北美的城市女性是抑郁症患病率最高的。 That was also the wealthiest group. 她们同样是最富有的一群人。 So let's go back to the US military. 那么,我们回头来看美军的状况。 Ten percent are in combat. 10% 的军人经历过战争。 Around 50 percent have filed for PTSD compensation. 约乎50%的人申请PTSD补偿金。 So about 40 percent of veterans really were not traumatized overseas 所以大概 40%的退伍老兵并不是在海外受到精神创伤, but have come home to discover they are dangerously alienated and depressed. 而是回到家后发现他们被孤立并感到沮丧绝望。 So what is happening with them? 在这些人身上到底发生了什么? What's going on with those people, 他们遭遇了什麽? the phantom 40 percent that are troubled but don't understand why? 我们让 40% 的人,患上 PTSD,却不清楚成因? Maybe it's this: 或许是这个原因: maybe they had an experience of sort of tribal closeness 也许当时他们在海外, in their unit when they were overseas. 经历过部队亲密的战友关係。 They were eating together, sleeping together, 他们一起吃饭,一起睡觉, doing tasks and missions together. 一道完成任务和使命。 They were trusting each other with their lives. 以生命为担保,相信彼此。 And then they come home 待他们回到家, and they have to give all that up 曾经的一切都必须舍弃。 and they're coming back to a society, a modern society, 他们回到社会,这个现代社会, which is hard on people who weren't even in the military. 这个甚至对非军人都苛刻至极的社会。 It's just hard on everybody. 所有人在这社会都活得艰苦。 And we keep focusing on trauma, PTSD. 而我们却一直关注创伤,PTSD。 But for a lot of these people, 但对大部分人来说, maybe it's not trauma. 也许这不是精神创伤。 I mean, certainly, soldiers are traumatized 我的意思是,当然了,士兵的确是受过精神创伤, and the ones who are have to be treated for that. 也有士兵接受过治疗。 But a lot of them -- 但是这之中许多人—— maybe what's bothering them is actually a kind of alienation. 也许困扰他们的只是一种疏离感。 I mean, maybe we just have the wrong word for some of it, 我的意思是,也许我们只是错用了词语去形容他们, and just changing our language, our understanding, 只要调整我们的语句,改变我们的想法, would help a little bit. 都将会有所帮助。 "Post-deployment alienation disorder." "战后孤独感症候群"。 Maybe even just calling it that for some of these people 也许只要这样称呼他们其中的一部分人 would allow them to stop imagining 就能帮助他们停止联想 trying to imagine a trauma that didn't really happen 一个根本没有发生过的创伤。 in order to explain a feeling that really is happening. 这是为了解释一种他们正在经历的感受。 And in fact, it's an extremely dangerous feeling. 而事实上,这是一种非常危险的感觉。 That alienation and depression can lead to suicide. 疏远和抑郁有可能导致自杀。 These people are in danger. 这些人身处险境。 It's very important to understand why. 瞭解成因是非常重要的事情。 The Israeli military has a PTSD rate of around one percent. 以色列军人,患 PTSD 的概率是1%。 The theory is that everyone in Israel is supposed to serve in the military. 有一种理论是说,因为以色列的所有人都需要服兵役。 When soldiers come back from the front line, 当士兵从前线回归, they're not going from a military environment to a civilian environment. 他们不是要从军队环境回到文明社会, They're coming back to a community where everyone understands about the military. 而是回到一个人人都瞭解甚麽是当兵的社会。 Everyone's been in it or is going to be in it. 每个人都曾经服役、或者准备去服役。 Everyone understands the situation they're all in. 所有人知道自己处在什么样的情况, It's as if they're all in one big tribe. 就好像这些人处于一个庞大的部落中。 We know that if you take a lab rat 我们都知道,如果拿做实验用的小白鼠, and traumatize it and put it in a cage by itself, 折磨它,把它单独关在笼子里, you can maintain its trauma symptoms almost indefinitely. 你可以永无止境地让牠保持在精神创伤的状态。 And if you take that same lab rat and put it in a cage with other rats, 但假如你把同样的实验鼠放在有其他老鼠的笼子里, after a couple of weeks, it's pretty much OK. 几个星期后,牠的表现就会回復正常了。 After 9/11, 在9/11之后, the murder rate in New York City went down by 40 percent. 纽约的谋杀率下降了40%, The suicide rate went down. 自杀率也下降了, The violent crime rate in New York went down after 9/11. 纽约的暴力犯罪率,随9/11之后也下降了。 Even combat veterans of previous wars who suffered from PTSD 甚至在之前战役中,饱受 PTSD 的老兵都说, said that their symptoms went down after 9/11 happened. 他们的症状在9/11之后有所缓和。 The reason is that if you traumatize an entire society, 原因在于,如果一整个社会范围内的群体都受到创伤, we don't fall apart and turn on one another. 我们并不会因此瓦解崩溃,彼此针锋相对。 We come together. We unify. 而是融为一体,心连心。 Basically, we tribalize, 大致来说,我们产生了集体意识。 and that process of unifying feels so good and is so good for us, 团结一起的过程让人感觉很好,也对我们有益, that it even helps people 甚至帮助了那些、 who are struggling with mental health issues. 还在苦苦与精神健康问题缠斗的人。 During the blitz in London, 在二战伦敦被德国轰炸的期间, admissions to psychiatric wards went down during the bombings. 精神病医院的患者减少了。 For a while, that was the kind of country that American soldiers came back to -- a unified country. 有一段时间,美军从海外返回的国家是一个团结的国家。 We were sticking together. 我们紧紧相依, We were trying to understand the threat against us. 试图知晓到底是什么威胁着我们。 We were trying to help ourselves and the world. 试着自我帮助,加益于世界。 But that's changed. 但这些都变了。 Now, American soldiers, 现在,美国的在役军人、 American veterans are coming back to a country that is so bitterly divided 美国老兵,正在回到一个极其分裂的国家, that the two political parties are literally accusing each other 两党互相指控对方叛国、 of treason, of being an enemy of the state, 是国家的敌人、 of trying to undermine the security and the welfare of their own country. 或者暗中颠复国家的国土安全和福利。 The gap between rich and poor is the biggest it's ever been. 贫富差距达到前所未有之大, It's just getting worse. 现状还在恶化。 Race relations are terrible. 种族关系恶劣, There are demonstrations and even riots in the streets 街上有人示威游行、甚至引发暴乱, because of racial injustice. 全因种族歧视。 And veterans know that any tribe that treated itself that way -- in fact, 退伍军人知道任何一个部落或者连队 any platoon that treated itself that way -- would never survive. 以这样的方式对待自己的战友,都不会存活。 We've gotten used to it. 我们却已经习惯了。 Veterans have gone away and are coming back 退伍军人离开战地,终是回国。 and seeing their own country with fresh eyes. 用全新的眼光,看待自己的国家。 And they see what's going on. 目睹发生的这些, This is the country they fought for. 这就是他们为之浴血奋斗的国家。 No wonder they're depressed. 也难怪他们会抑郁, No wonder they're scared. 他们会害怕。 Sometimes, we ask ourselves if we can save the vets. 有的时候,我们问自己,是否能够拯救那些老兵。 I think the real question is if we can save ourselves. 我反倒认为,真正的问题在于,我们能不能拯救我們的社會。 If we can, 如果能, I think the vets are going to be fine. 我想他们就会有所好转。 It's time for this country to unite, 这个国家是时候该团结起来了, if only to help the men and women who fought to protect us. 只为帮助那些为保护我们而奋勇斗争的人。 Thank you very much. 非常感谢大家的倾听。 (Applause) (掌声)