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I'm an MIT professor. [AI] 我是麻省理工学院的教授。 but I do not design buildings or computer systems. [AI] 但我不设计建筑物或计算机系统。 Rather. I build body parts. [AI] 相当地我制造身体部位。 bionic legs that augment human walking and running. [AI] 增强人类行走和跑步能力的仿生腿。 In 1982. I was in a mountain-climbing accident. [AI] 1982年。我出了一次登山事故。 and both of my legs had to be amputated due to tissue damage from frostbite. [AI] 由于冻伤造成的组织损伤,我的双腿不得不截肢。 Here. you can see my legs: [AI] 在这里你可以看到我的腿: 24 sensors. six microprocessors and muscle-tendon-like actuators. [AI] 24个传感器。六个微处理器和肌腱状执行器。 I'm basically a bunch of nuts and bolts from the knee down. [AI] 我基本上是膝盖以下的一堆螺母和螺栓。 But with this advanced bionic technology. [AI] 但是有了这种先进的仿生技术。 I can skip. dance and run. [AI] 我可以跳过。跳舞和跑步。 (Applause) [AI] (掌声) Thank you. [AI] 非常感谢。 (Applause) [AI] (掌声) I'm a bionic man. but I'm not yet a cyborg. [AI] 我是一个仿生人。但我还不是一个电子人。 When I think about moving my legs. [AI] 当我想到移动我的腿。 neural signals from my central nervous system [AI] 来自中枢神经系统的神经信号 pass through my nerves [AI] 穿过我的神经 and activate muscles within my residual limbs. [AI] 激活我残肢的肌肉。 Artificial electrodes sense these signals. [AI] 人造电极感应这些信号。 and small computers in the bionic limb [AI] 以及仿生肢体中的小型计算机 decode my nerve pulses into my intended movement patterns. [AI] 把我的神经脉冲解码成我想要的运动模式。 Stated simply. [AI] 简单地说。 when I think about moving. [AI] 当我想到搬家的时候。 that command is communicated to the synthetic part of my body. [AI] 这个命令被传送到我身体的合成部位。 However. those computers can't input information into my nervous system. [AI] 然而那些电脑不能把信息输入我的神经系统。 When I touch and move my synthetic limbs. [AI] 当我触摸和移动我的人造肢体时。 I do not experience normal touch and movement sensations. [AI] 我没有正常的触摸和运动感觉。 If I were a cyborg and could feel my legs [AI] 如果我是一个机器人,能感觉到我的腿 via small computers inputting information into my nervous system. [AI] 通过小型计算机将信息输入我的神经系统。 it would fundamentally change. I believe. [AI] 这将从根本上改变。我相信。 my relationship to my synthetic body. [AI] 我和我的人造身体的关系。 Today. I can't feel my legs. [AI] 今天我腿麻了 and because of that. [AI] 正因为如此。 my legs are separate tools from my mind and my body. [AI] 我的腿是与我的思想和身体分开的工具。 They're not part of me. [AI] 他们不是我的一部分。 I believe that if I were a cyborg and could feel my legs. [AI] 我相信如果我是一个机器人,能感觉到我的腿。 they would become part of me. part of self. [AI] 他们会成为我的一部分。自我的一部分。 At MIT. we're thinking about NeuroEmbodied Design. [AI] 在麻省理工学院。我们正在考虑神经体现设计。 In this design process. [AI] 在这个设计过程中。 the designer designs human flesh and bone. the biological body itself. [AI] 设计师设计人的骨肉。生物体本身。 along with synthetics to enhance the bidirectional communication [AI] 结合综合手段,加强双向沟通 between the nervous system and the built world. [AI] 在神经系统和人造世界之间。 NeuroEmbodied Design is a methodology to create cyborg function. [AI] 神经体现设计是一种创造电子人功能的方法。 In this design process. designers contemplate a future [AI] 在这个设计过程中。设计师展望未来 in which technology no longer compromises separate. [AI] 在这种情况下,技术不再妥协于独立。 lifeless tools from our minds and our bodies. [AI] 我们的头脑和身体中没有生命的工具。 a future in which technology has been carefully integrated [AI] 技术被仔细整合的未来 within our nature. [AI] 在我们的天性中。 a world in which what is biological and what is not. [AI] 一个什么是生物的,什么不是的世界。 what is human and what is not. [AI] 什么是人,什么不是人。 what is nature and what is not [AI] 什么是自然,什么不是 will be forever blurred. [AI] 将永远模糊。 That future will provide humanity new bodies. [AI] 这一未来将为人类提供新的身体。 NeuroEmbodied Design will extend our nervous systems [AI] 神经体现设计将扩展我们的神经系统 into the synthetic world. [AI] 进入合成世界。 and the synthetic world into us. [AI] 和合成世界进入我们。 fundamentally changing who we are. [AI] 从根本上改变我们是谁。 By designing the biological body to better communicate [AI] 通过设计生物机体来更好地沟通 with the built design world. [AI] 随着设计世界的建立。 humanity will end disability in this 21st century [AI] 人类将在21世纪结束残疾 and establish the scientific and technological basis [AI] 建立科学技术基础 for human augmentation. [AI] 用于人类增强。 extending human capability beyond innate. physiological levels. [AI] 将人的能力扩展到先天能力之外。生理水平。 cognitively. emotionally and physically. [AI] 认知的。在情感上和身体上。 There are many ways in which to build new bodies across scale. [AI] 有许多方法可以跨规模构建新机构。 from the biomolecular to the scale of tissues and organs. [AI] 从生物分子到组织和器官的尺度。 Today. I want to talk about one area of NeuroEmbodied Design. [AI] 今天我想谈谈神经体现设计的一个领域。 in which the body's tissues are manipulated and sculpted [AI] 身体组织在其中被操纵和雕刻 using surgical and regenerative processes. [AI] 使用手术和再生过程。 The current amputation paradigm [AI] 当前的截肢范式 hasn't changed fundamentally since the US Civil War [AI] 自美国内战以来没有发生根本性的变化 and has grown obsolete in light of dramatic advancements [AI] 并且随着戏剧性的进步而变得过时 in actuators. control systems and neural interfacing technologies. [AI] 在执行器中。控制系统和神经接口技术。 A major deficiency is the lack of dynamic muscle interactions [AI] 一个主要缺陷是缺乏动态肌肉互动 for control and proprioception. [AI] 用于控制和本体感觉。 What is proprioception? [AI] 什么是本体感觉? When you flex your ankle. muscles in the front of your leg contract. [AI] 当你弯曲脚踝时。腿部前部的肌肉收缩。 simultaneously stretching muscles in the back of your leg. [AI] 同时伸展腿部后部的肌肉。 The opposite happens when you extend your ankle. [AI] 当你伸展脚踝时,情况正好相反。 Here. muscles in the back of your leg contract. [AI] 在这里腿部后部的肌肉收缩。 stretching muscles in the front. [AI] 伸展前面的肌肉。 When these muscles flex and extend. [AI] 当这些肌肉伸缩时。 biological sensors within the muscle tendons [AI] 肌腱内的生物传感器 send information through nerves to the brain. [AI] 通过神经向大脑发送信息。 This is how we're able to feel where our feet are [AI] 这就是我们能够感觉脚在哪里的方式 without seeing them with our eyes. [AI] 而不是用我们的眼睛看他们。 The current amputation paradigm breaks these dynamic muscle relationships. [AI] 当前的截肢模式打破了这些动态的肌肉关系。 and in so doing eliminates normal proprioceptive sensations. [AI] 这样做可以消除正常的本体感觉。 Consequently. a standard artificial limb [AI] 因此标准假肢 cannot feed back information into the nervous system [AI] 无法将信息反馈到神经系统 about where the prosthesis is in space. [AI] 关于假体在太空中的位置。 The patient therefore cannot sense and feel [AI] 因此,患者无法感觉到 the positions and movements of the prosthetic joint [AI] 假肢关节的位置和运动 without seeing it with their eyes. [AI] 而不是用他们的眼睛看。 My legs were amputated using this Civil War-era methodology. [AI] 我的腿是用内战时期的方法截肢的。 I can feel my feet. I can feel them right now [AI] 我能感觉到我的脚。我现在能感觉到 as a phantom awareness. [AI] 作为一种幻影意识。 But when I try to move them. I cannot. [AI] 但当我试图移动它们时。我不能。 It feels like they're stuck inside rigid ski boots. [AI] 感觉就像被卡在坚硬的滑雪靴里。 To solve these problems. [AI] 解决这些问题。 at MIT. we invented the agonist-antagonist myoneural interface. [AI] 在麻省理工学院。我们发明了激动剂拮抗剂肌神经界面。 or AMI. for short. [AI] 或者阿美族。简而言之。 The AMI is a method to connect nerves within the residuum [AI] AMI是一种连接残余体内神经的方法 to an external. bionic prosthesis. [AI] 到外部。仿生假体。 How is the AMI designed. and how does it work? [AI] AMI是如何设计的。它是如何工作的? The AMI comprises two muscles that are surgically connected. [AI] AMI由两块通过手术连接的肌肉组成。 an agonist linked to an antagonist. [AI] 与对手有联系的激动剂。 When the agonist contracts upon electrical activation. [AI] 当激动剂在电激活后收缩时。 it stretches the antagonist. [AI] 它拉长了对手。 This muscle dynamic interaction [AI] 这是肌肉的动态相互作用 causes biological sensors within the muscle tendon [AI] 导致肌腱内的生物传感器 to send information through the nerve to the central nervous system. [AI] 通过神经向中枢神经系统发送信息。 relating information on the muscle tendon's length. speed and force. [AI] 关于肌腱长度的相关信息。速度和力量。 This is how muscle tendon proprioception works. [AI] 这就是肌腱本体感觉的工作原理。 and it's the primary way we. as humans. [AI] 这是我们的主要方式。作为人类。 can feel and sense the positions. movements and forces on our limbs. [AI] 能够感觉和感觉到位置。我们四肢的运动和力量。 When a limb is amputated. [AI] 截肢时。 the surgeon connects these opposing muscles within the residuum [AI] 外科医生在残余体内连接这些相对的肌肉 to create an AMI. [AI] 创建一个AMI。 Now. multiple AMI constructs can be created [AI] 现在可以创建多个AMI构造 for the control and sensation of multiple prosthetic joints. [AI] 用于控制和感觉多个假肢关节。 Artificial electrodes are then placed on each AMI muscle. [AI] 然后在每个AMI肌肉上放置人工电极。 and small computers within the bionic limb decode those signals [AI] 仿生肢体内的小型计算机对这些信号进行解码 to control powerful motors on the bionic limb. [AI] 控制仿生肢体上的强大马达。 When the bionic limb moves. [AI] 当仿生肢体移动时。 the AMI muscles move back and forth. [AI] AMI肌肉来回运动。 sending signals through the nerve to the brain. [AI] 通过神经向大脑发送信号。 enabling a person wearing the prosthesis to experience natural sensations [AI] 使佩戴假肢的人能够体验自然感觉 of positions and movements of the prosthesis. [AI] 假肢的位置和运动。 Can these tissue-design principles be used in an actual human being? [AI] 这些组织设计原则能用于实际的人类吗? A few years ago. my good friend Jim Ewing -- of 34 years -- [AI] 几年前。我的好朋友吉姆·尤因,34岁-- reached out to me for help. [AI] 向我求助。 Jim was in an a terrible climbing accident. [AI] 吉姆在一次可怕的攀登事故中。 He fell 50 feet in the Cayman Islands [AI] 他在开曼群岛坠落了50英尺 when his rope failed to catch him hitting the ground's surface. [AI] 当他的绳子没能抓住他时,他撞到了地面。 He suffered many. many injuries: [AI] 他遭受了许多痛苦。许多人受伤: punctured lungs and many broken bones. [AI] 刺破了肺和许多骨折。 After his accident. he dreamed of returning to his chosen sport [AI] 在他的事故之后。他梦想着回到他选择的运动 of mountain climbing. [AI] 我喜欢爬山。 but how might this be possible? [AI] 但这怎么可能呢? The answer was Team Cyborg. [AI] 答案是电子人小组。 a team of surgeons. scientists and engineers [AI] 一队外科医生。科学家和工程师 assembled at MIT to rebuild Jim back to his former climbing prowess. [AI] 在麻省理工学院集合,让吉姆重获昔日的攀岩本领。 Team member Dr. Matthew Carty amputated Jim's badly damaged leg [AI] 队员马修·卡蒂医生截肢了吉姆严重受损的腿 at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. [AI] 在波士顿的百翰女子医院。 using the AMI surgical procedure. [AI] 使用AMI手术程序。 Tendon pulleys were created and attached to Jim's tibia bone [AI] 肌腱滑轮被制造出来并连接到吉姆的胫骨上 to reconnect the opposing muscles. [AI] 重新连接相对的肌肉。 The AMI procedure reestablished the neural link [AI] AMI程序重建了神经联系 between Jim's ankle-foot muscles and his brain. [AI] 在吉姆的脚踝肌肉和大脑之间。 When Jim moves his phantom limb. [AI] 当吉姆移动他的幻肢时。 the reconnected muscles move in dynamic pairs. [AI] 重新连接的肌肉成对运动。 causing signals of proprioception to pass through nerves to the brain. [AI] 使本体感觉信号通过神经传递到大脑。 so Jim experiences normal sensations with ankle-foot positions and movements. [AI] 因此,吉姆在踝足的位置和运动中有正常的感觉。 even when blindfolded. [AI] 即使蒙着眼睛。 Here's Jim at the MIT laboratory after his surgeries. [AI] 这是吉姆手术后在麻省理工学院实验室。 We electrically linked Jim's AMI muscles. via the electrodes. [AI] 我们用电把吉姆的肌肉连接起来。通过电极。 to a bionic limb. [AI] 到仿生肢体。 and Jim quickly learned how to move the bionic limb [AI] 吉姆很快就学会了如何移动仿生肢体 in four distinct ankle-foot movement directions. [AI] 在四个不同的踝足运动方向。 We were excited by these results. but then Jim stood up. [AI] 我们对这些结果感到兴奋。但是吉姆站了起来。 and what occurred was truly remarkable. [AI] 发生的事情真的很了不起。 All the natural biomechanics mediated by the central nervous system [AI] 所有由中枢神经系统介导的自然生物力学 emerged via the synthetic limb [AI] 通过合成肢体出现 as an involuntary. reflexive action. [AI] 作为一种非自愿的行为。反射性动作。 All the intricacies of foot placement during stair ascent -- [AI] 在爬楼梯时,脚的位置非常复杂-- (Applause) [AI] (掌声) emerged before our eyes. [AI] 出现在我们眼前。 Here's Jim descending steps. [AI] 吉姆在下台阶。 reaching with his bionic toe to the next stair tread. [AI] 用他的仿生脚趾到达下一个楼梯踏板。 automatically exhibiting natural motions [AI] 自动显示自然运动的 without him even trying to move his limb. [AI] 他甚至都不想动他的四肢。 Because Jim's central nervous system is receiving the proprioceptive signals. [AI] 因为吉姆的中枢神经系统正在接收本体感觉信号。 it knows exactly how to control the synthetic limb in a natural way. [AI] 它确切地知道如何以自然的方式控制合成肢体。 Now. Jim moves and behaves as if the synthetic limb is part of him. [AI] 现在吉姆的动作和行为就好像人造肢体是他的一部分。 For example. one day in the lab. [AI] 例如有一天在实验室。 he accidentally stepped on a roll of electrical tape. [AI] 他不小心踩到了一卷电工胶带。 Now. what do you do when something's stuck to your shoe? [AI] 现在当有东西粘在你的鞋子上时你会怎么做? You don't reach down like this; it's way too awkward. [AI] 你不能像这样俯身;太尴尬了。 Instead. you shake it off. [AI] 相反你把它甩掉。 and that's exactly what Jim did [AI] 吉姆就是这么做的 after being neurally connected to the limb for just a few hours. [AI] 在与肢体神经连接了几个小时后。 What was most interesting to me [AI] 我最感兴趣的是什么 is what Jim was telling us he was experiencing. [AI] 这就是吉姆告诉我们他所经历的。 He said. "The robot became part of me." [AI] 他说。“机器人成了我的一部分。” Jim Ewing: The morning after the first time I was attached to the robot. [AI] 吉姆·尤因:我第一次接触机器人后的第二天早上。 my daughter came downstairs and asked me how it felt to be a cyborg. [AI] 我女儿下楼来问我做一个机器人的感觉如何。 and my answer was that I didn't feel like a cyborg. [AI] 我的回答是,我觉得自己不像一个电子人。 I felt like I had my leg. [AI] 我觉得我有腿了。 and it wasn't that I was attached to the robot [AI] 并不是因为我喜欢机器人 so much as the robot was attached to me. [AI] 就像机器人附在我身上一样。 and the robot became part of me. [AI] 机器人成为了我的一部分。 It became my leg pretty quickly. [AI] 它很快就变成了我的腿。 Hugh Herr: Thank you. [AI] 休·赫尔:谢谢。 (Applause) [AI] (掌声) By connecting Jim's nervous system bidirectionally [AI] 通过双向连接Jim的神经系统 to his synthetic limb. [AI] 他的假肢。 neurological embodiment was achieved. [AI] 实现了神经学的具体化。 I hypothesized that because Jim can think and move his synthetic limb. [AI] 我假设这是因为吉姆能思考和移动他的合成肢体。 and because he can feel those movements within his nervous system. [AI] 因为他能感觉到神经系统的运动。 the prosthesis is no longer a separate tool. [AI] 假体不再是一个单独的工具。 but an integral part of Jim. an integral part of his body. [AI] 但这是吉姆不可分割的一部分。他身体不可分割的一部分。 Because of this neurological embodiment. Jim doesn't feel like a cyborg. [AI] 因为这个神经学的化身。吉姆觉得自己不像个电子人。 He feels like he just has his leg back. [AI] 他觉得自己的腿好像又回来了。 that he has his body back. [AI] 他恢复了他的身体。 Now I'm often asked [AI] 现在经常有人问我 when I'm going to be neurally linked to my synthetic limbs bidirectionally. [AI] 当我要双向连接到我的合成肢体时。 when I'm going to become a cyborg. [AI] 当我要成为一个电子人的时候。 The truth is. I'm hesitant to become a cyborg. [AI] 事实是。我不想成为一个电子人。 Before my legs were amputated. I was a terrible student. [AI] 在我的腿被截肢之前。我是个糟糕的学生。 I got D's and often F's in school. [AI] 我在学校得了D,经常得F。 Then. after my limbs were amputated. [AI] 然后我的四肢被截肢后。 I suddenly became an MIT professor. [AI] 我突然成了麻省理工学院的教授。 (Laughter) [AI] (众笑) (Applause) [AI] (掌声) Now I'm worried that once I'm neurally connected to my limbs once again. [AI] 现在我担心一旦我的神经再次与四肢相连。 my brain will remap back to its not-so-bright self. [AI] 我的大脑将重新映射回它不那么明亮的自我。 (Laughter) [AI] (众笑) But you know what. that's OK. because at MIT. I already have tenure. [AI] 但你知道吗。没关系。因为在麻省理工学院。我已经有任期了。 (Laughter) [AI] (众笑) (Applause) [AI] (掌声) I believe the reach of NeuroEmbodied Design [AI] 我相信神经体现设计的影响力 will extend far beyond limb replacement [AI] 将远远超出肢体置换 and will carry humanity into realms [AI] 并将把人类带入世界 that fundamentally redefine human potential. [AI] 这从根本上重新定义了人类的潜力。 In this 21st century. [AI] 在这个21世纪。 designers will extend the nervous system into powerfully strong exoskeletons [AI] 设计师们将把神经系统扩展成强大的外骨骼 that humans can control and feel with their minds. [AI] 人类可以用他们的思想控制和感觉。 Muscles within the body can be reconfigured [AI] 身体内的肌肉可以重新配置 for the control of powerful motors. [AI] 用于控制大功率电机。 and to feel and sense exoskeletal movements. [AI] 感觉和感知外骨骼运动。 augmenting humans' strength. jumping height and running speed. [AI] 增强人类的力量。跳跃高度和奔跑速度。 In this 21st century. I believe humans will become superheroes. [AI] 在这个21世纪。我相信人类会成为超级英雄。 Humans may also extend their bodies [AI] 人类也可以伸展身体 into non-anthropomorphic structures. such as wings. [AI] 进入非拟人结构。比如翅膀。 controlling and feeling each wing movement within the nervous system. [AI] 控制和感觉神经系统中的每一个翅膀运动。 Leonardo da Vinci said. "When once you have tasted flight. [AI] 达芬奇说。“当你尝过飞行的滋味。 you will forever walk the earth with your eyes turned skyward. [AI] 你将永远走在地球上,眼睛转向天空。 for there you have been and there you will always long to return." [AI] 因为你曾经去过那里,你将永远渴望回到那里。" During the twilight years of this century. [AI] 在本世纪的暮年。 I believe humans will be unrecognizable in morphology and dynamics [AI] 我相信人类在形态和动力学上是无法辨认的 from what we are today. [AI] 从我们今天的情况来看。 Humanity will take flight and soar. [AI] 人类将飞翔、翱翔。 Jim Ewing fell to earth and was badly broken. [AI] 吉姆·尤因摔倒在地,严重受伤。 but his eyes turned skyward. where he always longed to return. [AI] 但他的眼睛转向天空。他一直渴望回到那里。 After his accident. he not only dreamed to walk again. [AI] 在他的事故之后。他不仅梦想再次行走。 but also to return to his chosen sport of mountain climbing. [AI] 但也要回到他选择的登山运动。 At MIT. Team Cyborg built Jim a specialized limb for the vertical world. [AI] 在麻省理工学院。机器人小组为吉姆建造了一个垂直世界专用的肢体。 a brain-controlled leg with full position and movement sensations. [AI] 由大脑控制的腿,有完整的姿势和运动感觉。 Using this technology. Jim returned to the Cayman Islands. [AI] 使用这项技术。吉姆回到了开曼群岛。 the site of his accident. [AI] 他出事的地点。 rebuilt as a cyborg to climb skyward once again. [AI] 重建成一个电子人,再次向天空攀爬。 (Crashing waves) [AI] (巨浪) (Applause) [AI] (掌声) Thank you. [AI] 非常感谢。 (Applause) [AI] (掌声) Ladies and gentlemen. Jim Ewing. the first cyborg rock climber. [AI] 女士们,先生们。吉姆·尤因。第一个电子人攀岩者。 (Applause) [AI] (掌声)